Astronomy has a charm for all agencies where every satellite is their first satellite, which makes new discoveries and opportunities for good reasons therefore Nisar Satellite is the prominent example of joint NASA-ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). Nisar is a prime example of Earth – a mission to examine missions aimed at making global measurements about the causes and consequences of changes in the Earth’s surface and potential areas of research on the world’s most expensive satellite.
Nisar satellite is customized to detect the early warnings of Ecosystem disturbances, ice sheet collapse and natural disasters. The NISAR mission was adopted to measure microscopic changes of the Earth’s surface associated with crust and ice surfaces. NISAR improves our awareness of the major impacts of climate change and increases our awareness of natural disasters.
This satellite contains two powerful different radar frequencies(l-band and s-band) which is used to detect the changes in the surface of our planet.this mission offers great specifications like it will observe the flow rates of glaciers and ice sheets to the dynamics of earthquakes and volcanoes. It provides NASA mission’s L-band SAR (synthetic aperture radar), high – rate communication subsystem for science data, GPS receivers, a solid state recorder, and payload data subsystem. Services that will be provided by ISRO include spacecraft bus, s-band sar and launching.
The Nisar satellite launch is targeted for 2021.
Features of the world’s most expensive Nisar satellite
A joint venture, JPL and ISRO co-operate in the design, development, integration, testing and operation of NISAR’s aviation systems. The flight system suite includes a launch vehicle and a free-flight observatory. The NISAR Observatory is built around the main payload of S-band SAR (synthetic aperture radar) devices, designed to collect near-Earth radar data on Earth and ice to reach Level 1 science targets.
In addition to the two radar devices, the Nisar spacecraft (24 cm) longitudinal (24 cm) spacecraft with GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, solid-state aperture, two fully synthetic aperture radar devices for accurate orbital detection and onboard timing references in the Nisar Satellite payload Cm wavelength (S-SAR), each designed as a range-fed reflector to act as a sweeper scan-on-receive wide swat mapping system.
The mapping scenario calls for continuous sampling over a wide area to allow time sequence and noise reduction through stacking methods.
Therefore, a high rate device and data downlink system is required. The average capacity of the modified data downlink is 26 Tbit / day, which supports devices that can demand from 72 Mbit / s to 1500 Mbit / s in their lowest bandwidth mode in L-band.
NASA’s works include the L-Band SAR Instrument, which includes a 12-M diameter deployable mesh reflector and a 9 – M deployable boom and a total octagonal device structure. In addition to it NASA will use a high-capacity solid-state recorder (with a capacity of 9 Tbit at the end of its life), a GPS receiver, a 3.5 Gbit / s co-band telecom system, and an engineering to coordinate command and data management with ISRO.
ISRO provides spacecraft and launch vehicles, as well as S-band SAR electronics for instrumental construction. The integration of technical interfaces between subsystems is a key focus of the partnership.
Read more about the NISAR Satellite, the power of space
Nisar Satellite covers all the ice-covered surfaces of the Earth from the ascending and descending parts of each orbit every 12-day cycle. With the exception of sensitive resolution regarding observations of ice sheets in polar loops, there is no attempt to reduce any acquisition as a function of latitude, although above 60 degrees north latitude completely eliminates each other observation.
These observations change ground tracks with increasing latitude, not helping to fill the gaps by combining ascending-only or descending-only swats, as this swap creates overlap at the edges because the intervals are within a fixed range and meet latitude. These breaks can be filled by neighboring swatches when there is significant swat overlap 60 degrees north, but then above 60 degrees, the swat pull opens the spaces again. Therefore, for descent coverage, only certain areas of the earth are not mapped.
The two spaces in the double-pole swat are up to 10% of the total area, so 10% of the land is not covered by ascending or descending directions in any 12-day cycle and to ensure that each area is mapped, the difference is transferred from cycle to cycle.
The Nisar satellite will be launched from India in a geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle. The class of the satellite is sun-synchronized, from dawn to dusk and The planned mission life is three years. The Nisar Satellite cost is about US $1.5 Billion.
The project has passed in the first stage of design certification in respect to this NASA and ISRO has reviewed and approved the nisar satellite cost of the project 788 million (US $ 110 million) share, and NASA share approximately US $ 808 million and in respect to this Millions of people have died at the impotence of natural disasters especially in under developing countries, therefore It is a blessing to these countries and to the whole world and certainly a good crunch for human society.
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